Apa Itu Mutah?

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Mutah berasal dari akar kata متع yang bermakna, mengambil suatu keuntungan darinya.[1] Mutah juga berati mengambil manfaat sedikit dan sesaat.[2] Adapun secara istilah mutah adalah pernikahan antara pria dan wanita pada batas yang ditentukan kedua belah pihak dengan mahar yang disepakati, ketika berakhir waktu yang ditentukan, berakhir pula pernikahan keduanya.[3]

Al-Qurthubi didalam tafsirnya menukil perkataan Ibnu Abdil Barr berkata, ” Tidak ada perselisihan antara ulama salaf dan khalaf bahwa mutah adalah pernikahan yang memiliki batasan waktu dan tidak ada waris didalamnya. Keduanya berpisah ketika batas waktu telah habis tanpa harus thalak.[4]

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Jika kita menilik definisi mutah menurut Raghib Isfahani dan Qurthubi mereka mengelompokan mutah sebagai bagian dari pernikahan. Artinya pernikahan dibagi menjadi dua: pernikahan kekal yang berakhir dengan talak dan pernikahan temporer yang berakhir dengan waktu yang ditentukan kedua belah pihak. Untuk itu salah kaprah jika mutah disamakan dengan zinah karena mutah adalah bagian dari pernikahan sebagaimana disepakati ulama-ulama sunnah dan syiah. Perbedaan keduanya hanyalah apakah hukum mutah telah dihapus (naskh) ataukah masih berlaku hingga saat ini dan Ahlu Sunnah berpendapat bahwa nikah mutah telah dihapus sedangkan syiah berpendapat masih berlaku hingga saat ini karena tidak ada bukti-bukti penghapusannya.

Untuk itu tidak ada perbedaan di awal Islam bahwa mutah telah disyariatakan Allah swt untuk memudahkan hamba-hamba-Nya. Ibnu Kasir berkata, ” Tidak ada keraguan sama sekali bahwa nikah mutah dihalalkan  pada awal-awal Islam, lalu setelah itu dihapus.”[5]

Artinya jika mutah adalah zinah, maka Allah swt telah menghalalkan zinah walaupun sesaat dan itu bertentangan dengan keilmuan Allah swt dan hikmah diturunkannya syariat. Maha suci Allah swt dari perbuatan-perbuatan buruk dan tercela.

Abu Syirin Al Hasan

[1]  Ibnu Manzur, Lisan Arab, Beirut, Penerbit Dar-Shar, 1414 Qamari, Juz.8 Hal.239

[2]  Qursyi, Qamus Al-Quran, Juz.6 Hal.239

[3]  Raghib Isfahani, Husein ibn Muhammad, Al-Mufradat fi Gaharib Al-Quran, Beirut, Dar Al-ilm, 1412 Q, cetakan pertama, Juz.1 Hal.757

[4]   Tafsir Qurthubi, Juz.5 Hal.132

[5]  Tafsir Ibnu Kasir, Juz. 1 Hal. 475

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