Apa Itu Rafidhah?

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Mengenal Syiah tak luput dari istilah Rafidhah atau Rafidhi yang sering kali dilekatkan ataupun dinisbatkan padanya. Namun dibalik itu sudahkah kita tahu apa makna dari sebutan tersebut? Serta mengapa hal tersebut disandangkan kepada mazhab Syiah?

Secara bahasa kata Rafidhah atau Rafidhi berasal dari kata رفض yang bermakna menolak atau meninggalkan, ketika dikatakan رفضتُ الشـيء أي تركته = saya menolak sesuatu maksudnya saya meninggalkannya.[1]

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Adapun secara istilah, hal ini memiliki beberapa pandangan sebagai berikut:

Ibnu Mandzur dalam Lisanul Arab menyebutkan bahwa Rawafidh (bentuk jamak dari Rafidhah) adalah pasukan yang meninggalkan pemimpinnya dan berbalik. Maka setiap kelompok dari mereka disebut Rafidhah dan ketika dinisbatkan kepada mereka (orangnya) disebut Rafidhi.  Dan Rawafidh adalah kelompok dari Syiah yang meninggalkan Zaid bin Ali.[2]

Abul Hasan al-Asy’ari dalam kitabnya menyebut istilah Rafidhoh dengan menjelaskan:

و اَنّما سُمُّوا الإمامية رافِضَة لِرَفَضهِم اِمامَة ابي‌بكر وعُمر

Dan sesungguhnya Imamiyah disebut dengan Rafidhah karena penolakan mereka terhadap kepemimpinan Abu Bakar dan Umar.[3]

Sementara yang lain seperti Imam Syafii dalam bait Syairnya menjelaskan istilah Rafidhah dikaitkan dengan kecintaan terhadap keluarga Nabi Muhammad SAW.

إن كان رفضاً حبّ آل محمد  فليشهد الثقلان أنّي رافضي

Seandainya cinta terhadap keluarga Muhammad adalah Rafdh (penolakan atau tanda Rafidhah) maka bersaksilah hai jin dan manusia sesungguhnya aku adalah Rafidhi (seorang Rafidhah).[4]

Alhasil dari semua penyataan yang menyebutkan istilah Rafidhah atau Rafidhi, hal ini bukanlah sebuah penyebutan yang berasal dari syariat Islam, melainkan hanya sebutan atau julukan terhadap sebuah kelompok yang diberikan oleh kelompok lainnya karena memiliki perbedaan pandangan. InsyaAllah dalam seri-seri berikutnya akan dibahas secara lebih jelas lagi.

[1] Mu’jam Maqayisil Lughah, hal: 395, Dar Ihya at-Turats al-Arabi, Beirut. Lisanul Arab, hal: 1689, Darul Maarif, Kairo.

[2] Lisanul Arab, hal: 1690, Darul Maarif, Kairo.

[3] Maqalaatul Islamiyyin Wakhtilaaful Mushallin, Jil: 1, hal: 87.

[4] Manaqib as-Syafi’i, jil: 2, hal: 71, Darut Turats, Kairo.

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