Khalifah Umar bin Khattab dan Usman bin Affan Mendahulukan Shalat Dari Berbuka

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Pada seri sebelumnya telah diulas tentang  perbedaan pandangan waktu berbuka puasa menurut Syiah dan Ahlussunnah.

Pada seri kali ini akan dikaji berkaitan dengan perbedaan pendapat ke-duanya seputar mendahulukan shalat atau berbuka.

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Fikih mazhab Syiah berkeyakinan bahwa diutamakan mendahulukan shalat dari berbuka puasa. Hal ini didasri oleh berbagai riwayat yang ada di dalam literatur hadits Ahlulbait. Dan kali ini akan disebutkan satu riwayat dari imam Ja’far Shadiq AS yang menyatakan:

“dari Zurarah dari Abu Jafar: pada bulan Ramadhan Shalatlah terlebih dahulu baru setelah itu engkau berbuka, kecuali jika engkau bersama orang-orang yang sedang menunggu berbuka. Maka jika engkau bersama mereka, janganlah menyalahi mereka, dan berbukalah.[1]

Sebaliknya Ulama Ahlussunnah sebagaimana diutarakan oleh Abdurrahman al-Jaziri di dalam kitabnya Kitab al-Fikh Ala al-Mazahib al-Arbaah, berpendapat bahwa diutamakan berbuka puasa terlebih dahulu sebelum melaksanakan shalat:

“Disunnahkan bagi yang yang berpuasa beberapa hal: Diantaranya menyegerakan berbuka selelah mata hari tenggelam dan sebelum shalat.[2]

Dari pernyataan ini dapat dipahami bahwa dalam pandangan Ahlussunnah mendahulukan berbuka dari shalat lebih diutamakan. Namun di dalam literatur lainnya dapat ditemukan realita yang berbeda di mana khalifah Umar dan ‘Utsman mendahulukan shalat dari berbuka puasa. Hal ini sesuai dengan apa yang terekam di dalam kitab al-Muwatha:

“Dari Humaid bin Abdurrahman; Sesungguhnya Umar bin al-Khattab dan ‘Utsman bin Affan melaksanakan Shalat Magrib ketika melihat malam sudah gelap, sebelum berbuka. Kemudian kedunya berbuka setelah shalat dan itu pada bulan Ramadhan.[3]

Riwayat ini dengan gamblang menyatakan bahwa kedua khalifah baik Umar bin Khattab maupun ‘Utsman bin Affan, melakukan hal yang berbeda dengan apa yang diyakini oleh fikih Ahlussunnah.

Lebih menariknya lagi, pada hadits di atas disebutkan bahwa mereka melaksanakan shalat ketika malam sudah gelap, di mana hal ini juga mengkonfirmasi apa yang diyakini oleh mazhab Syiah berkaitan dengan waktu berbuka. Sebagaimana telah disebutkan pada tulisan sebelumnya.


[1] Tusi, Muhammad bin Hasan bin Ali, Tahzib al-Ahkam, jil: 4, hal: 263, cet: Maktabah al-Shaduq.

[2] Al-Jaziri, Abdurrahman, Kitab al-Fikh Ala al-Mazahib al-Arbaah, jil: 1, hal: 524, cet: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiah, Beirut.

[3] Malik bin Anas, al-Muwatha, jil: 1, hal: 289, cet: Dar Ihya al-Turats al-Arabi, Beirut.

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