Pernahkah Nabi Muhammad Saw Sebut Para Sahabatnya Munafik?

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Salah satu senjata—yang dipakai oleh kelompok penentang—untuk menyerang mazhab Syiah adalah dengan menuduh mereka sebagai pelaku yang tidak menghormati bahkan yang melaknat para sahabat nabi.

Pada pembahasan sebelumnya telah dijelaskan, bahwa tuduhan yang dilayangkan kepada mazhab Syiah, sebagai kelompok yang melaknat dan mencaci maki sahabat tidaklah benar. Hanya saja, mazhab Syiah memandang sahabat sesuai dengan porsinya.

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Artinya, mazhab Syiah lebih kritis dalam memandang sahabat nabi. Dengan kata lain, mereka tidak menghukumi bahwa semua sahabat nabi adalah adil dan baik, sebagaimana yang diyakini oleh ulama Ahlusunnah, tidak pula menghukumi semua dari mereka dengan kacamata sebaliknya.

Menurut pandangan mazhab Syiah, sahabat nabi tak ubahnya manusia biasa. Tidak semua dari mereka sempurna. Sebaliknya, Syiah mamandang, ada beberapa sahabat nabi yang luar bisa dan memiliki keutamaan dari kebanyakan manusia biasa, seperti Sayyidna Ali, Abu Dzar, Miqdad dan Ammar bin Yasir.

Kalaupun terdengar kata-kata yang bertentangan dengan ulama Ahlusunnah—yang disematkan kepada sahabat nabi—dari lisan atau tulisan ulama Syiah, maka hal itu bukanlah sesuatu yang kebetulan belaka atau yang dibuat-buat, melainkan berdasarkan sumber-sumber kitab yang ada, yang bahkan termaktub di dalam kitab rujukan Ahlusunnah itu sendiri.

Untuk membuktikan kalau tak semua di antara sahabat nabi itu adalah adil dan baik, bahkan di antara mereka terdapat orang-orang munafik, maka kita perlu membaca redaksi yang berkaiatan dengan hal ini, yang disampaikan langsung oleh Rasulullah Saw.

Dikutip dari kitab Musnad Al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal karya Imam Hanbali, bahwa tertulis sebuah riwayat di dalamnya sebagai berikut.

 قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: فِي أَصْحَابِي اثْنَا عَشَرَ مُنَافِقًا

Rasulullah Saw. berkata, “Di antara para sahabatku, ada dua belas orang yang munafik.” [1]

Dari sini, tampak jelas, bahwa sudut pandang mazhab Syiah terhadap para sahabat nabi bisa kita bandingkan dengan kelompok Islam lainnya. Pasalnya, sudut pandang mereka terhadap sabahat nabi, justru mereka adopsi dari kitab rujukan ulama Ahlusunnah. Sekali lagi, adapun kata-kata yang terlontar dari ulama Syiah atau penganut Syiah terkait dengan sahabat nabi, tak lain berangkat dari bukti-bukti yang ada, yang mereka temukan di dalam kitab-kitab Ahlusunnah. 

[1] Musnad Al-Imam bin Hanbal, jilid 38, hal. 345, Abu Abdillah Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal bin Hilal bin Asad Syaibani, Muhaqqiq (pemeriksa/periset), Syuaib Al-Arnud-Adil Mursyid. Penerbit, Mu’asasah Ar-Risalah, cetakan pertama: 1421 H/2001 M.

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