Ibnu Al-Jauzi dan Tahrif Al-Quran

ibnu al-jauzi

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Di antara para ulama lainnya  yang memberikan kesaksian akan adanya perbedaan terkait surat-surat Al-Quran adalah Ibnu Al-Jauzi. Ia menukil dari Abu Al-Husein Al-Munadi yang menyatakan keyakinan Ibnu Mas’ud dan Ubai bin Ka’ab dalam masalah tersebut.

Ibnu Al-jauzi sendiri merupakan seorang ulama besar bermadzhab Hambali yang ahli dalam berbagai bidang keilmuan Islam. Ia lahir pada tahun 508 H di kota Baghdad, Irak serta menurut sebagian sumber disebutkan bahwa ia memiliki nasab yang sampai pada khalifah pertama.

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Dalam kitabnya yang berjudul Funun Al-Afnan fi ‘Uyun ‘Ulum Al-Qur’an, ia menukil pernyataan Al-Munadi terkait jumlah surat pada Al-Quran:

فقال أبو الحسين بن المنادي: جميع سور القرآن؛ في تأليف زيد بن ثابت على عهد الصديق وذي النورين؛ مائة وأربع عشرة سورة، فيهن الفاتحة و التوبة والمعوذتان، و ذلك (هو الذي في أيدي) أهل قبلتنا

و جملة سوره على ما ذكر عن أبي بن كعب رضي الله عنه مائة وست عشرة سورة. وكان ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه يسقط المعوذتين، فنقصت جملته سورتين عن جملة زيد.وکان أُبی بن کعب یُلحقهما ویزید إلیهما سورتین، وهما الحَفدة والخَلع

إحداهما،: (اللهم إِنا نستعینک ونستغفرک … )، وهی سورة الخلع. والْأُخرى: (اللهم إیاک نعبد … ) ، وهی سورة الحفد

فزادت جملته على جملة زید سورتین، وعلى جملة ابن مسعود أربع سور. وکل أدى ما سمع، ومصحفنا أولى بنا أن نتبع

“Abu Al-Husein bin Al-Munadi berkata: ‘Semua surat-surat Al-Quran dalam penyusunan Zaid bin Tsabit pada masa As-Shiddiq wa Dzi An-Nurain (Khalifah pertama) berjumlah 114 surat. Di dalamnya termasuk Al-Fatihah, At-Taubah dan Al-Muawwidzatain (Al-Falaq dan An-Nas). Dan itu adalah (yang ada di tanganku) yang menjadi kiblat kita.

Adapun jumlah surat-suratnya (Al-Quran) berdasarkan apa yang disebutkan Ubai bin Ka’ab RA, 116 surat. Sementara Ibnu Mas’ud menggugurkan Al-Muawwidzatain maka jumlahnya berkurang dua surat dari jumlah (yang disebutkan) Zaid (114-2 = 112 surat). Adapun Ubai bin Ka’ab memasukan keduanya (Al-Falaq dan An-Nas) dan menambahkan dua surat lainnya yaitu Al-Hafd dan Al-Khal’a.

Salah satunya: (اللهم إِنا نستعینک ونستغفرک … ) ia adalah surat Al-Khal’a. Dan yang lainnya: (اللهم إیاک نعبد … ) dan ia merupakan surat Al-Hafd.

Maka bertambah jumlahnya (berdasarkan Ubai bin Ka’ab) dua surat pada jumlah (yang disebutkan) Zaid dan empat surat pada jumlah (yang disebutkan) Ibnu Mas’ud. Dan semua itu berdasarkan apa didengar olehnya (Abu Al-Husein bin Al-Munadi), namun mushaf kita lebih utama bagi kita untuk mengikutinya.’”[1]

Berdasarkan penjelasan di atas jelas terlihat adanya perbedaan jumlah surat-surat Al-Quran yang ada di tangan para sahabat, sebagaimana yang telah dinukil dari Abu Al-Husein bin Al-Munadi. Ibnu Al-Munadi sendiri disebut sebagai seorang Imam yang masyhur, hafiz (penghafal), tsiqah, mutqan, peneliti dan Dhabith.

Meskipun yang menjadi pilihan jumhur adalah Al-Quran yang berada di hadapan kita saat ini, namun hal itu tidak menafikan adanya pandangan lain dari beberapa sahabat terkait surat-surat Al-Quran. Hal ini tentunya akan menjadi pertanyaan besar perihal apakah perbedaan tersebut melazimkan tahrif terhadap Al-Quran ataukah tidak. Jika itu merupakan tahrif, dapatkah kita menisbatkan tahrif pada sahabat atau bisakah itu kita terima sebab sumbernya berasal dari sahabat.

Begitulah sebagian riwayat yang dapat kita temukan dalam sumber-sumber riwayat Ahlu Sunnah sebagaimana hal seperti ini (riwayat yang mengindikasikan tahrif Al-Quran) juga dapat kita temukan dalam sumber-sumber riwayat Syiah. Meskipun persoalan tahrif Al-Quran ini selalunya condong menyoroti madzhab Syiah.

[1] Funun Al-Afnan fi ‘Uyun ‘Ulum Al-Qur’an, hal: 233-236, Dar Al-Basya’ir Al-Islamiyah.

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