Hubungan Hadis Dua Belas Khalifah, Tsaqalain dan keberadaan Imam Mahdi As

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Pada tulisan kali ini akan dikaji hubungan erat antara berbagai jenis hadits yang berbeda serta tidak terhubung jika dilihat sepintas, namun memiliki koneksi yang cukup erat jika dikaji lebih lanjut dan dalam.

Hadits yang dimaksud adalah berbagai riwayat yang menyatakan bahwa ada 12 (dua belas) khalifah (pemimpin) setelah Nabi Saw, hadits tsaqalain (dua perkara yang berbobot), hadits yang menyatakan keluarga Nabi adalah Khalifah serta riwayat yang menyatakan bahwa Imam Mahdi merupakan keturunan Nabi Saw.

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Untuk melihat hubungan erat diantara berbagai jenis riwayat ini, pertama kita akan sebutkan hadits yang menyatakan bahwa akan ada dua belas pemimpin setelah Nabi. Sebenarnya ada banyak riwayat yang memiliki konten seperti ini, namun untuk memperingkas pembahasan dicukupkan dengan menyebutkan satu hadits saja. Muslim di dalam kitabnya memuat hadits berikut:

“(Sesungguhnya urusan ini (kepemimpinan) tidak akan berlalu sampai sempurna pada mereka dua belas khalifah”[1]

Di dalam riwayat ini disebtkan bahwa urusan kepemimpinan tidak akan selesai dan berakhir sebelum melalui dua belas khalifah. Namun, di sini tidak dijelaskan siapa yang dimaksud dengan dua belas khalifah tersebut.

Memang di dalam sebagian riwayat disebutkan bahwa mereka semua dari kalangan Quraisy dan bahkan disebagian riwayat disebutkan juga dari kalangan Bani Hasyim.

Akan tetapi ada satu riwayat yang menjelaskan dengan lebih jelas lagi di mana disebutkan bahwa para khalifah tersebut adalah Ahlulbait serta keturunan Rasulullah Saw:

“Sungguh aku benar-benar meninggalkan dua khalifah di antara kalian; Kitabullah dan Ahlulbaitku. Dan sungguh keduanya tidak akan berpisah sampai bertemu dengan ku di telaga (haudh)[2]

Di dalam riwayat di atas disebutkan bahwa khalifah setelah Rasulullah tersebut adalah keluarga beliau yang disandingkan dengan al-Quran.

Oleh karena itu dengan menngabungkan kedua bentuk riwayat di atas dapat dipahami bahwa yang dimaksud dengan keduabelas khalifah yang disebutkan di dalam berbagai riwayat yang ada merupakan Ahlulbait Nabi Saw yang notabene merupakan suku Quraisy dan bani Hasyim.

Yang lebih menarik lagi adalah, di dalam riwayat sahih di atas disebutkan bahwa keduanya; keluarga Nabi dan al-Quran, tidak akan pernah terpisah sampai menemuai Nabi Saw kelak di telaga.

Dari sini dapat dipahami bahwa sebagaimana keberadaan al-Qurana merupakan wujud yang berkesinambungan (selalu ada) sampai akhir zaman, maka keberadaan keluarga nabi yang merupakan khalifah juga mesti selalu ada dan eksis sampai akhir zaman. Dan dengan wafatnya salah seorang dari mereka harus digantikan oleh sosok berikutnya, sampai jumlah tersebut genap dua belas orang.

Hal ini senada dengan hadits tsaqalain yang menyebutkan:

“Rasulullah Saw berkata: Aku tinggalkan pada kalian yang mana jika kalian berpegang teguh padanya, kalian tidak akan tersesat setelahku, salah satu dari keduanya lebih agung dari yang lain: Kitabullah yang merupakan tali yang terbentang dari langit sampai ke Bumi dan Itrahku: Ahlulbaitku, keduanya tidak akan terpisah sampai bertemu denganku di telaga Haudh.”[3]

Dengan ditopang hadits ini, pemahaman tentang kesinambungan adanya khalifah sepanjang masa yang merupakan keturunan Nabi Saw semenjak ditinggal oleh beliau sampai hari ini merupakan keyakinan yang valid dan absah.

Kesinbungan ini jugalah yang kemudian menggiring kita untuk meyakini adanya imam yang sudah lahir dan masih hidup sampai saat ini. Dan sosok itu tidak lain dan tidak bukan adalah Imam Mahdi As.

Kesimpulan ini diperoleh, memngingat bahwa beliau merupakan keturunan Nabi Saw, dari suku Qurais dan bani Hasyim. Hal ini juga sejalan dengan berbagai hadits yang menyatakan bahwa imam Mahdi merupakan keturunan Rasul Saw.

Ditambah lagi hanya beliau satu-satunya sosok yang memenuhi kriteria untuk melanjutkan kesinambungan kepemimpinan (khilafah) semenjak dari Imam Ali, Hasan, Husain, serta keturunan Imam Husain sampai dengan Imam Hasan al-Askari yang kemudian melahirkan Imam Mahdi As.

Jika konsep ini kita tolak, dengan artian bahwa kita meyakini Imam Mahdi belum lahir, maka kita mesti siap dengan konsekuensi adanya kekosongan khalifah, dan itu bertentangan dengan banyak riwayat yang mengatakan mereka harus senantiasa ada sebagaimana al-Quran selau tetap ada di tengah-tengah umat.


[1] Muslim bin al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim: jil: 3, hal: 14533, cet: Dar al-Hadits – Kairo

[2] Al-Tabrani, Sulaiman bin Ahmad, al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, jil: 5, hal: 153-154, cet: Maktabah Ibn Taimiah, Qairo.

[3] Al-Tirmizi, Muhammad bin Isa, Sunan al-Tirmizi, jil: 5, hal: 663, cet: Musthafa al-Babial-Halabi, Mesir.

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