Sejarah Singkat Peristiwa Ghadir Khum

MUSLIM MENJAWAB – Bulan Dzulhijjah telah kembali menyapa kita, bulan ini merupakan salah satu bulan yang agung dalam agama Islam, karena dalam bulan ini terdapat peristiwa penting dan bersejarah. Sebagaimana yang telah kami jelaskan sebelumnya, salah satu peristiwa penting dan bersejarah di bulan ini ialah peristiwa Ghadir Khum.

Pada tahun ke 10 Hijriyah bulan Dzulhijjah, Rasulullah Saw beserta ribuan kaum muslimin melaksanakan perjalanan ke Mekkah untuk ibadah Haji. Ibadah haji ini dikenal sebagai ‘Haji Wada’, karena haji ini merupakan haji perpisahan dan terakhir untuk Rasulullah Saw.

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Peristiwa Ghadir Khum bermula ketika Rasulullah Saw telah menyelesaikan hajinya, kemudian dalam perjalanan, beliau Saw beserta rombongan sampai di sebuah lembah yang bernama Ghadir Khum, lalu turun ayat Al-quran kepadanya dan memerintahkannya untuk menyampaikan dan memperkenalkan Imam Ali bin Abi Thalib as sebagai maula, washi, atau khalifah setelahnya. Ayat ini disebut juga sebagai Ayat Tabligh. Perihal Ayat Tabligh yang merupakan ayat pelantikan Imam Ali as sebagai Khalifah setelah Rasulullah Saw telah kita bahas sebelumnya di Website ini. Pembaca yang Budiman bisa merujuk kembali dengan mengklik disini.

Setelah Rasulullah Saw sampai di Ghadir Khum beliau berhenti dan menyuruh orang-orang untuk berkumpul. Mereka yang telah pergi mendahului pun kembali, dan orang-orang yang tertinggal bersegera berkumpul. Setelah orang-orang berkumpul beliau menyampaikan khutbah yang dikenal sebagai khutbah Al-Ghadir dan melantik Imam Ali as sebagai wali kaum muslimin.

Peristiwa tersebut terekam dalam kitab As-Sunan Al-Kubra karya An-Nasai, dalam kitab tersebut tertulis:

…Dari Muhajir bin Masmar ia berkata: telah mengabarkan kepadaku Aisyah binti Sa’ad dari Sa’ad ia berkata: Kami Bersama Rasulullah Saw melalui jalur Mekkah, dan ia menghadapkan wajahnya kesana, ketika sampai di Ghadir Khum ia memberhentikan orang-orang, kemudian orang-orang yang didepan kembali, dan yang dibelakang bersegera mendekat. Ketika orang-orang telah berkumpul, Rasulullah Saw berkata: Wahai umat manusia apakah aku telah menyampaikan? Mereka menjawab: ya. Rasul berkata:Ya Allah saksikanlah (sebanyak 3 kali), lalu berucap: Wahai umat manusia siapakah wali kalian? Mereka berkata: Allah dan Rasulnya (hal itu berlangsung 3 kali) kemudian Rasul memegang tangan Ali dan mengangkatnya lalu berkata: Sesiapa yang menjadikan Allah dan RasulNya sebagai wali, maka ini (Ali) adalah walinya, Ya Allah cintailah orang yang mencintainya dan musuhilah orang yang memusuhinya.

As-Sunan Al-Kubra Juz 5 Hal. 135 Cet Darul Kutub Al-Ilmiyah – Beirut

Peristiwa Ghadir Khum sendiri disaksikan oleh ribuan sahabat Nabi Saw dan termasuk di dalamnya sahabat-sahabat besar Nabi Saw, Sehingga setelah Rasul menyampaikan khutbah dan melantik Imam Ali sebagai pemimpin, mereka mengucapkan selamat kepadanya, termasuk diantara mereka yaitu Umar bin Khattab yang menemuinya dan memberikan selamat atas terpilihnya Imam Ali sebagai pemimpin setelah Rasulullah Saw. Seperti yang tercatat dalam kitab Musnad al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal sebagai berikut.

…Dari Al-Barra bin ‘Azib ia berkata: Kami bersama Rasulullah Saw dalam sebuah perjalanan, lalu kami berhenti di Ghadir Khum, dan kami diseru untuk shalat berjamaah, lalu dibersihkan tempat dibawah dua pohon untuk Rasulullah Saw dan ia menunaikan shalat Dhuhur. Kemudian ia memegang tangan Ali Ra lalu berkata: Bukankah kalian mengetahui bahwasannya aku lebih memiliki kewenangan dan wilayah atas kaum mukminin daripada diri-diri mereka sendiri? Mereka menjawab: ya. Rasul Saw berkata: Bukankah kalian mengetahui bahwasannya aku lebih memiliki kewenangan dan wilayah atas setiap mukmin daripada dirinya sendiri? Mereka menjawab: Ya. Al-Barra berkata: Lalu Rasul mengangkat tangan Ali dan berkata: Sesiapa ang menjadikan aku sebagai maulanya, maka Ali adalah maulanya, Ya Allah sayangilah yang menyayanginya dan musuhilah yang memusuhinya. Al-Barra berkata: Lalu setelah itu Umar menemui Ali dan berkata: Selamat wahai putra Abu Thalib, engkau telah menjadi maula untuk setiap mukmin dan mukminah.

Musnad Al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal Juz 30 Hal. 430 Cet. Muassasah Ar-Risalah

Dan setelah Rasulullah menyampaikan apa yang harus ia sampaikan, yaitu pengangkatan dan pelantikan Imam Ali bin Abi Thalib as sebagai pemimpin kaum muslimin, maka turunlah ayat yang dikenal sebagai Ayat Ikmal. Ayat ini ada dalam surat Al-Maidah tepatnya pada ayat ke 3, dimana Allah Swt telah Menyempurnakan dan Meridhoi agama Islam. Hal ini sebagaimana yang telah digambarkan dalam Kitab Tarikh Madinatis Salami milik Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi.

…Dari Abu Hurairoh ia berkata: Sesiapa yang berpuasa pada 18 Bulan Dzulhijjah, maka ia seperti berpuasa selama 60 bulan. Dan hari tersebut adalah hari Ghadir Khum, hari ketika Nabi Saw mengangkat tangan Ali bin Abi Thalib lalu berkata: Bukankah aku wali kaum mukminin? Mereka berkata: Ya wahai Rasulullah. Rasul Saw berkata: Sesiapa yang menjadikan aku maulanya, maka Ali adalah maulanya. Kemudian Umar bin Khattab berkata:  Selamat, selamat untukmu wahai putra Abu Thalib, engkau telah menjadi maulaku dan maula setiap muslim. Kemudian Allah menurunkan ayat (الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ  )…

Tarikh Madinatus Salami Jilid 9 Hal. 222 Cet. Darul Gharbil Islami

Itulah sejarah singkat dari peristiwa Ghadir Khum yang referensinya kami ambil dari kitab-kitab Ahlussunnah. Adapun hal-hal lainnya yang berkaitan dengan Ghadir Khum Insya Allah akan kita bahas pada seri-seri berikutnya.

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