Pandangan Ulama Terhadap Hadis Wasiat

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Kepercayaan sekte al-Yamani yang dibangun berdasarkan keterangan yang menyebutkan adanya pemerintahan pasca imam ke-12, yaitu berlanjut dengan 12 Mahdi sebagaimana yang tercatat di dalam hadis dinamai sebagai hadis wasiat, memiliki begitu banyak masalah untuk bisa diterima, baik dari segi sanad maupun kandungannya.

Keberadaan riwayat atau hadis ini sendiri adalah ternyata sudah dari sejak dulu mendapatkan perhatian khusus dari para ulama. Mereka mengkaji, mempelajari serta membandingkannya dengan riwayat-riwayat lainya yang sahih bahkan mutawatir.

Read More

Syekh Mufid (413 H) di dalam kitabnya menyinggung pembahasan hadis ini, ia menyebutkan:

“Dan tidak ada satu pun pemerintahan bagi seseorang, setelah pemerintahan Al-Qaim (imam Mahdi As), kecuali apa yang diberitakan dalam sebuah riwayat tentang bangkitnya putra al-Qaim. Namun riwayat tersebut belum masuk pada tingkatan Qath’i (sudah pasti munculnya dari maksum) atau tetap. Dan banyak dari riwayat yang menyebutkan bahwa imam Mahdi umat ini As tidak akan tidak akan berlalu melainkan hingga sebelum terjadinya kiamat dengan jarak 40 hari. Pada saat itu terjadi kekacauan, juga tanda keluarnya orang-yang telah mati dan bangkitnya hari pembalasan demi hisab maupun pembalasan, dan Allah Swt maha mengetahui dengan apa yang akan terjadi dan Dialah sang pemilik taufik bagi kebenaran, dan kepada-Nya kita meminta penjagaan dari kesesatan, dan kepada-Nya kita memohon petunjuk kepada jalan kebenaran. (dan semoga shalawat Allah tercurahkan kepada junjungan kita Muhammad sang nabi dan keluarganya yang suci).”[1]

Begitu pula Ali bin Yunus al-Bayadhi (877 H), seorang alim di bidang kalam dalam kitabnya terkait persoalan hadis wasiat menjelaskan:

“Saya katakan: Riwayat ini (hadis wasiat) adalah riwayat Ahad (periwayatannya tidak mencapai mutawatir), menghasilkan Dzan (sangkaan), sementara masalah Imamah (kepemimpinan) adalah ilmiah (persoalan yakin) dan juga karena nabi Saw (dalam riwayat wasiat) tidak menjelaskan orang-orang terakhir (12 Mahdi) dengan nama-namanya, dan tidak mengungkapkan sifat-sifat mereka, sedangkan adanya kebutuhan untuk mengenal mereka, maka hal ini melazimkan penundaan penjelasan dari kebutuhan, dan tambahan (bagian yang menyebutkan 12 Mahdi) dalam hadis ini juga adalah hal yang ganjil yang bertentangan dengan (hadis) yang masyhur.”[2]

Setelah itu ia menjelaskan jika ada yang berkata bahwa tidak ada kontradiksi antara kedua hadis itu (hadis wasiat dengan hadis masyhur tentang 12 imam) sebab maksud dari riwayat-riwayat tersebut sama, dalam hal menetapkan 12 imam setelah nabi Muhammad Saw. Ia mejawab bahwa jika demikian maka itu adalah kesia-siaan atau pengelabuan dalam menyebut jumlah 12. Sebab dalam banyak riwayat yang disebutkan adalah 12 imam setelah nabi, yang mana 9 dari mereka adalah keturunan dari imam Husein As (imam ke-3). Begitu juga dalam banyak riwayat menyebut 12 imam itu sebagai hujjah Allah Swt bagi manusia.[3]

Catatan: Hujjah adalah bukti yang tidak bisa disangkal dalam kasus ini, sosok imam adalah hujjah bermakna bahwa keberadaan mereka sebagai sosok pengarah, pembimbing, perantara dan pemimpin bagi manusia sehingga nanti di hari pembalasan tidak ada celah atau alasan bagi manusia ketika diminta pertanggungjawaban.

Berangkat dari itu apabila kita kembali melihat hadis wasiat, maka kita akan bertanya-tanya apakah 12 Mahdi yang muncul setelah 12 imam itu merupakan hujjah Allah Swt juga atau bukan? Jawabannya jika iya, maka mengapa nabi dalam hadis wasiat tidak menyatukan mereka menjadi 24 (sebab fungsi dan tugasnya sama) dan memisahkannya dengan 12 imam dan 12 Mahdi adalah hal yang sia-sia seperti yang sudah dijelaskan. Jika jawabannya tidak, mereka bukan hujjah, maka hal ini bertentangan dengan keterangan yang menjelaskan bahwa bumi ini tidak akan pernah kosong dari hujjah Allah Swt, juga bertolakbelakang dengan kesimpulan-kesimpulan logis dan filosofis akan kehadiran hujjah Allah Swt di tengah manusia. Sebab jika demikian, apabila masa 12 imam telah berakhir dan masuk pada masa 12 Mahdi, maka saat itu bumi akan kosong dari hujjah Allah Swt.

Adapun syekh Hur al-Amili (1104 H), seorang ulama hadis abad 11 Hijriah ini mencatat:

“Saya katakan: Riwayat ini tidak menghasilkan ilmu dan yakin disebabkan banyaknya kontradiksi, karena hadis-hadis yang muktabar dan riwayat-riwayat sahih yang mutawatir sangat jelas dalam membatasi para imam dalam jumlah 12, dan yang ke-12 dari mereka adalah penutup para washi, imam dan khalifah… dan pembahasan penting seperti ini melazimkan Tawatur dalam pengkabarannya seperti hal-hal lainnya yang mewajibkan kita untuk menyakininya, maka bagaimana (di satu sisi) masuk (riwayat) dari jalur yang sedikit atau langka dan masuk (riwayat lain) penentangnya dengan kekuatan (kuat jalurnya) yang telah disebutkan tadi.”[4]

Demikianlah terlihat bahwa hadis wasiat ini dalam kaca mata ulama tidak memiliki kekuatan jika dibandingkan dengan riwayat 12 imam yang muktabar dan menjadi asas keyakinan atau akidah Islam. Belum lagi ditambah dengan isi atau kandungannya yang menuai berbagai kritikan ilmiah, sehingga dalam hal ini hadis tersebut tidak bisa kita terima atau bahkan dijadikan dalil.


[1] Syekh Mufid, Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Nu’man, Al-Irsyad Fi Ma’rifati Hujajillah Alal I’bad, jil: 2, hal: 387.

[2] Al-Bayadhi, Ali bin Yunus, As-Shirathal Mustaqim Ila Mustahaqi At-Taqdim, jil: 2, hal: 153-154.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Hur al-Amili, Muhammad bin Husein, Al-Fawaid At-Thusiah, hal: 117.

Related posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

116 comments

  1. Ajib, Terus maju tim muslimmenjawab. Jarang website yang istiqamah Ilmiah dan selalu menjawab isu-isu kekinian.

  2. Wow, awesome weblog layout! How long have you been running
    a blog for? you make running a blog look easy.
    The overall glance of your website is fantastic, as smartly
    as the content material! You can see similar here najlepszy sklep

  3. Hey there! Do you know if they make any
    plugins to assist with SEO? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some
    targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good gains. If you know of any please share.
    Many thanks! You can read similar article here:
    Sklep online

  4. If some one wishes expert view concerning running a blog
    then i suggest him/her to visit this weblog, Keep up the nice job.

  5. I’m amazed, I have to admit. Seldom do I encounter a blog that’s
    both equally educative and interesting, and without a doubt, you’ve hit the nail on the
    head. The problem is something that too few people are speaking intelligently
    about. I am very happy I came across this during my
    hunt for something relating to this.

  6. Hello, I would like to subscribe for this website to get most up-to-date updates,
    thus where can i do it please help out.

  7. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It really useful
    & it helped me out much. I hope to give something back and aid others
    like you helped me.

  8. Thanks for another informative web site. Where else may just I get that type of information written in such an ideal means?
    I have a project that I am simply now operating on, and I have been at the glance out for such information.

  9. Hey! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you
    knew where I could find a captcha plugin for my comment form?
    I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one?
    Thanks a lot!

  10. Wow, superb weblog structure! How lengthy have
    you ever been running a blog for? you make blogging look easy.
    The whole glance of your website is excellent, as neatly as the content!

  11. It’s really a great and helpful piece of information. I’m happy that
    you simply shared this useful info with us.

    Please stay us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.

  12. I am sure this article has touched all the internet viewers,
    its really really pleasant post on building up new web site.

  13. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve visited your blog before but after looking at some of the posts I realized it’s
    new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I discovered
    it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back often!

  14. My brother suggested I would possibly like this blog. He was once entirely right.
    This put up truly made my day. You cann’t consider simply how so much time I had
    spent for this info! Thank you!

  15. Heya! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers?
    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing months of hard work due to no data backup.
    Do you have any methods to protect against hackers?

  16. I really like what you guys are up too. This sort of clever work and exposure!
    Keep up the terrific works guys I’ve added you guys to blogroll.

  17. Wow! This blog looks exactly like my old one! It’s on a entirely different topic but it has
    pretty much the same layout and design. Wonderful choice of colors!

  18. I’ve read some good stuff here. Definitely value bookmarking for revisiting.

    I wonder how a lot effort you put to create any such wonderful informative site.

  19. It’s nearly impossible to find knowledgeable
    people in this particular topic, however, you sound like you know what you’re talking about!
    Thanks

  20. Simply wish to say your article is as astonishing.
    The clearness in your post is just nice and i could assume you’re an expert on this subject.
    Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post.

    Thanks a million and please continue the gratifying work.

  21. Today, I went to the beach with my kids. I found a
    sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She put the shell to her ear and
    screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her
    ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is completely off topic but I had to
    tell someone!

  22. Finding your blog made my day. Packed with informative content
    and witty commentary, which isn’t easy to come by these days.
    value the effort you’ve put into your work.

    Your article is refreshingly unique. You offer a
    new perspective that is ignited my interest. Looking forward to seeing what you write next.

    I simply couldn’t resist to leave a comment.
    Your posts shine with me on a profound level. If you’re planning
    on offering a newsletter, sign me up! It would be a pleasure to have
    your insights delivered right to my inbox.
    Your article struck a chord with me. It’s not
    every day you stumble upon a website that invites you to reflect.
    Keen to read more of your work and urge you to keep writing.

    Your blog post felt like a breath of fresh air. With a sea of content online, it’s
    fantastic to find content that’s as engaging and educational as yours.
    Keep it up

    This syntax provides a variety of options for creating a
    positive and encouraging blog comment that compliments the author’s work and
    expresses a desire to continue engaging with their content.

    Occasionally, I discover a blog that grabs my interest because of its thought-provoking articles.
    Yours is certainly one of those rare gems. The way you interlace your words
    is not just enlightening but also extremely captivating.
    I applaud the dedication you show towards your craft and eagerly look forward to your future posts.

    In the plethora of the online space, it’s refreshing to find a blogger who puts so much heart into their work.
    Your posts don’t just offer valuable insights but also stimulate
    engaging discussions. Count me in as a regular
    reader from this point forward.

    Your blog has become a go-to resource for me, and I can’t help but check
    it regularly for fresh insights. Each post is like a
    tutorial in the subject matter, conveyed with crispness
    and humor. Would you consider offering a subscription service or a monthly newsletter?
    I am keen to get more of your knowledge straight to my inbox

    Your unique perspective to topics is not only refreshing,
    it’s highly sought after in our current internet landscape.
    Your ability to break down complex concepts and offer them
    in an understandable way is a skill that should be
    celebrated. I eagerly await your next article and the dialogues they’ll inspire.

    Discovering a blog that acts as both a cognitive challenge and a warm discussion. Your posts accomplish
    that, offering a perfect mix of knowledge and personal connection. The audience you’re nurturing here is proof to your
    effect and authority. I’m eager to see where
    you’ll take us next and I’m all in for the ride.

    Upon spending numerous hours diving into the expanse of the internet today, I feel compelled to express that
    your blog is like a lighthouse in a sea of information.
    Not once have I come across such an amalgamation of captivating thoughts that resonate on a
    profound level. Your penchant for elucidating complex subjects with simplicity and keen insight is admirable.
    I’m patiently waiting for your next piece, knowing it will enrich my understanding even further.

    In today’s age of information, where content is plentiful, your blog
    shines as a pillar of authenticity. It’s a joy to find
    a space of the web that is dedicated to cultivating intellectual growth.
    Your articulate posts ignite a desire for learning that many of us seek.
    I would be honored if there’s an option to subscribe for
    direct notifications, as I do not wish to miss any enlightening entry.

    Your website is a true reflection of what dedicated blogging is all about.
    Each article you craft is filled with valuable takeaways and rich narratives that make me reflect long after I’ve finished reading.
    Your voice is an invaluable contribution to the
    frequently crowded online world. If you have an exclusive subscription, count
    me as an eager participant to join. Your content is meriting sustaining.

    I find myself returning to your blog frequently,
    drawn by the quality of discussion you provoke. It’s obvious that your
    blog isn’t just a medium for sharing ideas; it’s a
    community for thinkers who are in search of purposeful engagement.

    Your investment inOf course!

    When I commenced reading your blog, I realized it was
    something special. Your talent to dive into intricate topics and unravel
    them for your audience is truly remarkable. Each post you release is a wealth of insights, and I
    constantly find myself eager to read what you’ll uncover
    next. Your dedication to high-quality content is apparent, and I anticipate that you’ll persist sharing such precious content.

    Your blog is a guiding light in the sometimes turbulent seas of online content.
    Your in-depth analysis into varied subjects are not only informative but also extremely captivating.
    I appreciate the way you meld meticulous investigation with
    personal anecdotes, crafting posts that are both enlightening and entertaining.

    If there’s an opportunity to subscribe your blog or become part
    of a newsletter subscription, I would be grateful to be informed of your latest musings.

    As a content creator, I’m spurred by the passion you put into each post.
    You have a talent for making even the most obscure topics
    approachable and compelling. The way you break down concepts and link them to larger contexts is
    exceptionally skillful. Please tell me if you have any webinars or e-books in the works,
    as I would love to gain further insight from your expertise.

    It’s not often to find a blog that resonates with both the intellectual
    and the personal. Your pieces are crafted with a degree of thoughtfulness that addresses the core of the human condition. Whenever
    I check your blog, I leave feeling enriched and inspired.
    I’m eager to know whether you plan to

    As soon as I commenced reading your blog, I could tell it was something special.
    Your ability to delve into challenging topics and unravel
    them for your readers is truly remarkable. Each
    post you share is a treasure trove of information, and I
    constantly find myself excited to read what you’ll uncover next.
    Your commitment to quality is clear, and I anticipate that
    you’ll continue offering such valuable perspectives.

  23. That is really fascinating, You are an overly professional blogger.

    I have joined your rss feed and look ahead to in search of more of your wonderful post.
    Also, I’ve shared your web site in my social networks

  24. This post is truly a pleasant one it assists new net viewers, who are wishing for blogging.

  25. Thanks for ones marvelous posting! I quite enjoyed reading
    it, you will be a great author.I will ensure that I bookmark your blog and
    will often come back down the road. I want to encourage yourself to continue your
    great posts, have a nice holiday weekend!

  26. I’m more than happy to discover this website.
    I need to to thank you for ones time for this particularly fantastic read!!
    I definitely enjoyed every bit of it and I have you book marked to see new information in your blog.

  27. I’m gone to tell my little brother, that he should also visit this blog
    on regular basis to take updated from most up-to-date information.

  28. We’re a group of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme in our
    community. Your web site provided us with helpful information to
    work on. You have performed an impressive process and our entire community shall be grateful to you.

  29. Great blog here! Also your web site loads up fast! What
    web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host?
    I wish my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  30. Thank you for every other magnificent post.

    The place else may just anyone get that kind of info in such an ideal way of writing?
    I’ve a presentation subsequent week, and I’m
    on the look for such info.

  31. Hello everyone, it’s my first visit at this web page, and paragraph is genuinely fruitful
    designed for me, keep up posting these types
    of posts.

  32. We are a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community.
    Your website provided us with valuable information to work on. You’ve done an impressive job and
    our whole community will be thankful to you.

  33. Независимо от того, вносите ли вы средства или снимаете, вы можете быть уверены, что ваши деньги в надежных руках.

  34. I do accept as true with all of the ideas you have offered on your post.
    They are really convincing and can certainly work.
    Nonetheless, the posts are very brief for newbies.
    Could you please lengthen them a bit from next time? Thanks for the post.

  35. Can I simply just say what a relief to find someone that actually
    knows what they’re discussing on the internet.
    You definitely understand how to bring a problem to
    light and make it important. A lot more people have to read this and understand this side of your story.

    I can’t believe you’re not more popular because you most certainly possess the
    gift.

  36. Today, while I was at work, my cousin stole my apple ipad and tested to see if it can survive
    a 40 foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My apple ipad is now destroyed and she has 83 views.
    I know this is totally off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  37. Excellent blog here! Also your web site loads up very fast!
    What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link
    to your host? I wish my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  38. Tại Tâm Beauty Clinic, chúng tôi xuất bản các nội dung đánh giá, bảng xếp hạng liên quan đến ngành làm đẹp, bao gồm các spa trị mụn, spa làm đẹp, spa dưỡng da,… Mỗi thương hiệu được đưa vào bảng xếp hạng đều trải qua quá trình sàng lọc kỹ lưỡng https://tambeautyclinic.vn