Khawarij dan Pemikiran Radikal

Muslim Menjawab – Pada awalnya, Khawarij merupakan gerakan politik sebuah kelompok/pasukan yang keluar dari barisan Imam Ali as. Mereka keluar karena memiliki perbedaan pandangan terutama dalam masalah peperangan dan kekuasaan sebagaimana yang telah dibahas pada seri sebelumnya. Setelah kejadian itu, Khawarij muncul sebagai sebuah golongan pemikiran dan aliran agama, serta dikenal sebagai kelompok yang memiliki gerakan keras juga radikal.

Banyak para perawi hadis dan sejarah membahas mengenai kelompok Khawarij. Semua berpendapat bahwa kelompok ini memiliki akidah yang jauh melenceng dari jalur Islam. Pada masa itu Khawarij terpecah menjadi beberapa bagian. Berikut adalah beberapa akidah serta kepercayaan yang dianut oleh kelompok Khawarij.

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Muslim yang melakukan dosa besar maka keluar dari Islam

Akidah pertama yang dianut Khawarij adalah menghukumi kafir seorang muslim yang telah melakukan dosa besar. Bahkan, salah satu firqah Khawarij bernama Azaraqah memiliki pandangan yang lebih ekstrim, yaitu orang yang telah melakukan dosa besar tidak dapat kembali beriman. Al-Bagdadi dalam kitabnya menjelaskan:

فذكر الكعبي في مقالاته: أنّ الذي يجمع الخوارج على افتراق مذاهبها إكفار علي وعثمان والحكمين، وأصحاب الجمل، وكل من رضي بتحكيم الحكمين، والإكفار بارتكاب الذنوب، ووجوب الخروج على الإمام الجائر

Al-Kabi dalam maqalatnya menjelaskan; Khawarij bersepakat dalam pengkafiran Ali, Utsman, dan orang-orang yang telah bersepakat, ashab Jamal, seluruh orang yang ridha dengan tahkim, orang-orang yang berbuat dosa besar serta wajib memberontak kepada penguasa zalim.

Al-Farqu bain Al-Firaq, al-Baghdadi, hal. 73

Mengkafirkan orang yang tidak sepaham bahkan diizinkan untuk dibunuh

Sebagian dari kelompok khawarij berpendapat bahwa membunuh anak serta istri dari orang yang berbeda pendapat dengan mereka adalah dibolehkan bahkan kelompok Azaraqah menghukumi wajib dalam masalah ini. Syahrestani dalam kitabnya menjelaskan:

و الثالثة:إباحته قتل أطفال المخالفين و النسوان معهم. و الخامسة:حكمه بأن أطفال المشركين في النار مع آبائهم.

Membolehkan (mubah) membunuh anak-anak serta istri dari orang yang bersebrangan dengan mereka

Anak-anak orang musyrik (yang meninggal) berada di neraka beserta orang tua mereka

Syahrestani Al-Milal Wa An-Nihal Juz 2, hal. 140-141, Cet. Dar Marifah, Beirut

Walaupun eksistensi kelompok-kelompok Khawarij pada masa kini telah tiada, namun pemikiran-pemikiran mereka masih tersisa bahkan berkembah hingga hari ini. Contoh jelasnya adalah kelompok-kelompok radikal seperti ISIS dan semacamnya. Mereka mengamalkan persis sebagaimana ajaran-ajaran Khawarij bahkan lebih parah lagi.

Maka dari itu, demi terhindar dari pemikiran seperti ini hendaknya kita selalu mempelajari agama Islam ini dengan dalam. Tidak setengah-setengah apalagi hanya sebatas instan sehingga kita menemukan hakikat agama Islam yang rahmatan lil alamin.

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