Konsep Keadilan Sahabat dalam Mazhab Ahlussunnah

MUSLIM MENJAWAB – Beberapa seri sebelumnya telah kita paparkan beberapa hal sekaitan dengan Sahabat Nabi Saw, dimulai dari tujuan pembahasan Sahabat, definisi Sahabat dan terakhir seputar definisi keadilan. Dibahasnya tentang definisi keadilan lantaran berhubungan dengan konsep keadilan Sahabat, yang insya Allah akan kita bahas pada seri kali ini.

Konsep keadilan Sahabat merupakan sebuah konsep yang sangat masyhur dalam mazhab Ahlussunnah. Konsep itu berbicara bahwa Sahabat Nabi Saw seluruhnya adil, bahkan dikatakan juga bahwa seluruh Sahabat Nabi Saw dipastikan masuk surga. Konsep tersebut menjadi sebuah landasan dan keyakinan sebagian besar ulama-ulama Ahlussunnah.

Salah satu ulama Ahlussunnah yang berkeyakinan akan konsep keadilan Sahabat ialah Ibnu Hajar Asqalani. Dalam kitabnya Al-Ishobah fi Tamyiz As-Shahabah beliau mengklaim dan mengatakan “Ahlussunnah sepakat bahwa seluruh Sahabat Nabi adil, dan tidak ada yang berselisih akan hal tersebut kecuali sedikit dari sebagian pelaku bid’ah.”

Masih dari kitab yang sama, Ibnu Hajar menukil perkataan dari Abu Muhammad bin Hazm yang mengatakan bahwa “seluruh Sahabat Nabi dipastikan merupakan Ahli Surga. Dan sesungguhnya tidak ada satupun dari mereka yang masuk neraka.”

Al-Ishobah fi Tamyiz As-Shahabah Juz 1 Hal. 162 Cet. Darul Kutub Al-Ilmiyah – Beirut
Al-Ishobah fi Tamyiz As-Shahabah Juz 1 Hal. 163 Cet. Darul Kutub Al-Ilmiyah – Beirut

Konsep tersebut tentu bukan tanpa dalil. Mereka yang meyakini konsep tersebut menjabarkan dalil baik dari Al-Quran maupun hadis-hadis yang mereka anggap menunjukkan pada keadilan seluruh sahabat. Dalil-dalil tersebut insya Allah akan kita bahas pada seri-seri selanjutnya berikut dengan catatan-catatannya. Dengan demikian kita akan mengetahui apakah konsep tersebut benar adanya dan sesuai berdasarkan yang ada dalam Al-Quran, hadis-hadis maupun riwayat, atau konsep tersebut gugur lantaran adanya dalil yang menunjukkan bahwa ternyata tidak semua Sahabat Nabi Saw itu adil.

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