Al-Khathib Al-Baghdadi dan Keadilan Sahabat Nabi

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Dalam beberapa seri yang lalu, telah kita kaji beberapa pandangan ulama Ahlusunnah terkait keadilan sahabat nabi saw. Kebanyakan dari mereka menyakini keadilan seluruh sahabat, meskipun terdapat sebagian kecil diantaranya yang tidak berpandangan demikian.

Diantara para ulama lainnya yang memiliki pandangan terhadap keadilan sahabat adalah Al-Khathib Al-Baghdadi. Ia merupakan seorang ulama yang hidup pada tahun 392 H hingga 463 H. Ayahnya merupakan seorang dikenal ahli dalam membaca Al-Quran, ia mendorong Al-Khathib untuk mendalami ilmu keagamaan hingga akhirnya Al-Khathib pergi ke beberapa kota diantaranya Bashrah dan Syam untuk menimba ilmu. Hasilnya, ia menjadi seorang ulama besar dan berhasil melahirkan beberapa karya yang salah satunya adalah dalam bidang hadis dan sejarah.

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Dalam pandangannya terkait sahabat Al-Khatib menjelaskan: Setiap Hadis yang tersambung sanadnya di antara yang meriwayatkannya dan nabi saw, tidak harus diamalkan kecuali setelah terbukti keadilan para perawinya, dan wajib melihat status mereka (para perawi) kecuali sahabat yang telah menyampaikan (sanad) ke Rasulullah saw, sebab keadilan sahabat adalah tetap yang diketahui dengan peng-adilan Allah terhadap mereka, pengabaran-Nya akan kesucian mereka serta pemilihan-Nya untuk mereka dalam nash Al-Quran.[1]

Dalam pernyataan ini ia menjelaskan bahwa ketika runutan sanad itu telah mencapai sahabat, maka tidak wajib untuk meneliti status keadilannya, sebab para sahabat keadilannya telah ditetapkan oleh Allah swt dalam Al-Quran.

Kemudian setelah itu ia membawakan beberapa ayat Al-Quran yang diyakininya sebagai dalil atas pandangannya tersebut.

Di tempat lain, setelah membawakan hadis nabi yang berbicara mengenai keutamaan sahabat, ia juga menuturkan: Dan riwayat-riwayat dalam makna serupa adalah luas (banyak), dan semuanya sesuai dengan apa yang muncul dalam nash Al-Quran, semuai itu menunjukkan kesucian sahabat, dan keyakinan akan peng-adilan serta kesucian mereka, maka salah satu dari mereka -dengan peng-adilan Allah swt yang mengetahui batin-batin mereka- tidak membutuhkan pengadilan siapa pun dari ciptaan-Nya untuk mereka, maka mereka (para sahabat) memiliki sifat seperti ini kecuali terbukti pada salah satu dari mereka, mengerjakan sesuatu yang tidak memungkinkan melainkan terdapat tujuan maksiat, dan keluar dari bab ta’wil, maka dihukumi dengan gugur keadilannya, sementara itu sungguh Allah telah menjauhkan mereka dalam hal itu, serta mengangkat derajat mereka di sisi-Nya.[2]

­Dalam beberapa penggalan pada pernyataannya di atas terkait sahabat, dapat kita lihat bahwa ia beberapa kali menisbatkan kesucian terhadap mereka, yang menurut hemat penulis membutuhkan pembahasan serta kajian lebih dalam lagi dalam hal ini.

Di samping itu menyakini keadilan sahabat yang merupakan peng-adilan dari Allah swt namun dibarengi kemungkinan gugur keadilannya, seperti yang ia jelaskan pada penggalan kedua, bukankah cukup menjadi alasan bagi kita untuk memilah dan menyaring manakah yang tetap dalam keadilan dan mana yang telah gugur keadilannya. Wallahu A’lam Bisshawab.


[1] Al-Kifayah Fi Marifati Ushul Ilmil Riwayah, jil: 1, hal: 180, Darul Huda.

[2] Al-Kifayah Fi Marifati Ushul Ilmil Riwayah, jil: 1, hal: 186, Darul Huda.

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