[Imam Zamakhsyari] Ahlulbait Punya Ikatan Khusus dengan Wahyu dan Kenabian

Muslim Menjawab – Sebelumnya telah diulas mengenai siapa Ahlulbait dalam Alquran Surah Al-Ahzab ayat 33, melalui sebuah Qarinah atau petunjuk Alif Lam yang ada dalam kata Albait (البيت). Melalui Qarinah tersebut, kita bisa menyimpulkan bahwa Ahlulbait di ayat tersebut bukanlah istri-istri Nabi, melainkan Fathimah, suaminya dan kedua putranya Hasan dan Husain. Ini jika kita artikan al-bait sebagai sebuah rumah yang bersifat benda.

Lalu bagaimana jika al-bait di ayat tersebut diartikan sebagai sebuah rumah kenabian, pusat kemuliaan dan cahaya, atau rumah wahyu yang bersifat spiritual? Tentu jika diartikan demikian, maka penghuni dari rumah tersebut haruslah mereka yang memiliki hubungan spiritual khusus terhadap kenabian dan wahyu, bukan berdasarkan ikatan keluarga.

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Allamah Zamakhsyari telah memahami pengertian ini dalam tafsirnya Al-Kasyaf. Beliau berkata sekaitan dengan Surah Hud ayat 73 قَالُوا أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ “Para malaikat itu berkata: “Apakah kamu merasa heran tentang ketetapan Allah? rahmat Allah dan keberkatan-Nya, dicurahkan atas kamu, hai ahlulbait!..” yang berkisah tentang istri Nabi Ibrahim yang merasa keheranan ketika wahyu turun mengabarkan akan kehamilannya. Beliau mengatakan hal itu karena ia (istri Nabi Ibrahim) berada di rumah ayat-ayat, tempat mukjizat-mukjizat dan hal-hal yang luar biasa. Jadi, dia harus bertakwa, dan tidak membuatnya takabur dibandingkan wanita-wanita lain yang hidup diluar rumah-rumah kenabian, dia harus mensucikan Allah dan mengagungkannya dibanding dengan merasa heran, hal inilah yang ditunjukkan oleh malaikat dalam ucapannya: رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ “rahmat Allah dan keberkatan-Nya, dicurahkan atas kamu, hai ahlulbait!”. Mereka menghendaki bahwa ini dan yang semisalnya termasuk pada hal-hal yang dengannya Tuhan memuliakan kalian dan mengkhususkan kalian dengan keberkahan wahai Ahlubait Nubuwwah.[1]

Ucapan Zamakhsyari di atas menunjukkan bahwa al-bait diartikan sebagai rumah kenabian atau rumah wahyu yang bersifat spiritual, bukan sebuah rumah yang bersifat kebendaan. Dan itu tidak dimaksudkan pada istri-istri Nabi, sebab, berdasarkan kesepakatan kaum muslimin, mereka tidak memiliki ikatan spiritual khusus dengan wahyu, namun mereka dihitung sebagai perempuan-perempuan beriman. Dan Ahlulbait adalah mereka yang terafiliasi memiliki ikatan spiritual khusus dengan wahyu dan kenabian. Mereka ialah Ahlul Kisa, yang mana pembuktian dan penjelasannya banyak disebutkan di dalam riwayat-riwayat. Ulasan mengenai hal tersebut akan dibahas di tulisan-tulisan yang akan datang.

Wallahu A’lam


[1] Az-Zamakhsyari, Mahmud bin Umar, Al-Kasyaf Jilid 2 Hal. 411 Cet. Darul Kitab Al-Arabi – Beirut

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