Menggali Bukti Syafaat: Surat An-Nisa 64 dan Tawassul Arab Badui di Makam Nabi

Muslim Menjawab – Dalam ajaran Islam, upaya untuk mendekatkan diri kepada Allah Swt seringkali diwujudkan dalam berbagai bentuk amalan. Salah satu praktik yang menjadi perhatian umat Islam adalah meminta syafaat kepada Rasulullah. Praktik ini didasarkan pada keyakinan bahwa Rasulullah Saw, sebagai utusan Allah, memiliki kedudukan istimewa dan diizinkan memberikan syafaat kepada umat-Nya. Artikel ini akan membahas beberapa bukti dan argumen yang mendukung amalan meminta syafaat kepada Rasulullah, dengan landasan surat An-Nisa ayat 64. Berikut kutipannya:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذْ ظَلَمُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّابًا رَحِيمًا

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“Dan kami tidak mengutus seseorang Rasul, melainkan untuk ditaati dengan seizin Allah. Sesungguhnya jika mereka ketika menganiaya dirinya datang kepadamu, lalu memohon ampun kepada Allah, dan Rasul pun memohonkan ampun untuk mereka, tentulah mereka mendapati Allah Maha Penerima tobat lagi Maha Penyayang.”

Salah satu landasan kuat bagi kaum Muslim dalam mempraktikkan tawassul dan meminta syafaat kepada Rasulullah Saw adalah ayat di atas. Ayat ini menyiratkan bahwa jika mereka yang berbuat zalim kepada diri sendiri datang kepada Rasulullah dan meminta syafaat, mereka akan mendapati Allah Maha Pengampun. Ayat ini menjadi pijakan spiritual bagi banyak umat Islam yang merasa perlu mendekatkan diri kepada Allah Swt melalui perantara Rasulullah Saw.

Penting untuk dicatat bahwa argumen ini tidak hanya bersandar pada ayat tersebut, tetapi juga diperkuat oleh riwayat dari para sahabat Nabi. Kisah ini dimulai ketika seorang Arab Badui datang ke makam Rasulullah, tiga hari setelah beliau Saw wafat. Dalam suasana bersedih di sisi pusara, Badui tersebut menyatakan kesaksian atas kenabian Muhammad dan ketaatan kepadanya. Ia kemudian mengucapkan ayat An-Nisa 64, mengakui kesalahannya, dan memohon Rasulullah untuk memintakan ampunan kepada Allah.

Keajaiban terjadi ketika jawaban terdengar dari arah makam, menyatakan bahwa dosa Badui tersebut telah diampuni. Riwayat ini tercatat dalam beberapa kitab termasuk kitab tafsir terkenal, seperti kitab Tafsir Al-Qurtubi karya Imam Qurtubi, kitab Tafsir al Bahru al Muhith karya Abu Hayyan Andalusi, dan juga di kitab Ad-Durar As-Sanniyyah karya Ahmad Zaini Dahlan.

رَوَى أَبُو صَادِقٍ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ قَالَ: قَدِمَ علينا أعرابي بعد ما دَفَنَّا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ، فَرَمَى بِنَفْسِهِ عَلَى قَبْرِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَحَثَا عَلَى رَأْسِهِ مِنْ تُرَابِهِ، فَقَالَ: قُلْتَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَسَمِعْنَا قَوْلَكَ، وَوَعَيْتَ عَنِ اللَّهِ فَوَعَيْنَا عَنْكَ، وَكَانَ فِيمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ (وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذْ ظَلَمُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ) الْآيَةَ، وَقَدْ ظَلَمْتُ نفسي وجئتك تَسْتَغْفِرُ لِي. فَنُودِيَ مِنَ الْقَبْرِ إِنَّهُ قَدْ غُفِرَ لَكَ

Abu Shadiq meriwayatkan dari Imam Ali bin Abi Thalib: Setelah tiga hari dimakamkannya Rasulullah Saw, datanglah seorang Arab Badui. Dia menjatuhkan dirinya ke makam sambil menyiramkan debunya ke kepalanya. Kemudian dia berucap: “Engkau telah katakan kepada kami, Ya Rasulallah, dan kami mendengarkan ucapkanmu itu, engkau telah mendapat penjelasan dari Allah Swt, dan kami mendapatkannya darimu, bahwa ada ayat Allah kepadamu yang berbunyi –Badui ini kemudian membacakan QS. an-Nisa ayat 64, lantas mengucapkan: “Sungguh aku mengakui telah berbuat zalim kepada diriku sendiri, dan sekarang aku datang kepadamu agar engkau berkenan memintakan ampunan Allah untukku. Tiba-tiba dari makam terdengar suara: “sesungguhnya kau telah diampuni.”

Dengan demikian, melalui bukti-bukti ini, umat Islam dapat memahami bahwa meminta syafaat kepada Rasulullah bukanlah suatu bid’ah atau praktik yang tidak memiliki dasar. Sebaliknya, amalan ini memiliki dasar yang kuat dalam al-Qur’an dan terdokumentasikan dalam riwayat-riwayat yang sahih.

Namun, penting untuk menekankan bahwa keyakinan ini harus dijalankan dengan pemahaman yang benar sesuai dengan ajaran Islam dan tidak boleh melenceng menjadi bentuk syirik atau penyekutuan dengan Allah. Di samping itu tidak sembarang orang dapat menerima syafaat, hanya orang yang memiliki kriteria tertentu.

Dengan demikian, pemahaman yang mendalam tentang ayat-ayat Al-Qur’an dan riwayat-riwayat seperti kisah Arab Badui di atas dapat membimbing umat Islam untuk menjalankan amalan-amalan keagamaan dengan keyakinan dan pemahaman yang benar sesuai dengan ajaran Islam.


  1. Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Abu Bakr Al-Anshari al-Qurthubi, al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Qur’an wa al Mubayyin lima Tadhammanah min al-Sunnah wa Ay al- Furqan, jil. 6, hal. 439, cet. Dar al-Kutub al-Alamiah – Beirut

    Muhammad Bin Yusuf As-Syahir Abi Hayyan Al-Andalusi, Tafsir al-Bahr al-Muhith, jil. 3, hal. 296, cet. Dar al-Kutub al-Alamiah – Beirut

    Ahmad Zaini Dahlan, Durarus Saniyah Fir Raddi Alal Wahabiyyah, hal. 24, cet. Istanbul

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