Sayyidina Ali dan Sumber Ilmu Fikih

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Di tengah tuduhan-tuduhan miring yang dialamatkan kepada mazhab Syiah oleh sebagian kelompok Islam sedikit-banyak menutupi peran postifinya di dalam Islam, terlebih di dalam sumbangsih keilmuan Islam. Saking kencangnya arus tuduhan kepada mazhab Syiah, sampai-sampai kita tak diberi ruang untuk menyaksikan fakta yang sesungguhnya amat positif dan inspiratif.

Fakta tersebut adalah tentang peran mazhab Syiah dan para ulamanya dalam memberikan sumbangsihnya di dunia keilmuan Islam, sebagaimana yang sudah kami singgung sebelumnya. Di dalam hal ini adalah ilmu gramatika bahasa Arab, yang lahir dari ulama yang bermazhab Syiah, yang jika kita runut, penggagas ilmu tersebut adalah Sayyidina Ali bin Abi Thalib.

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Ibnu Abil Hadid, seorang ahli sastra dan ahli fikih, yang bermazhab Sunni menuliskan keutamaan ilmu Sayyidina Ali bin Abi Thalib di dalam kitabnya yang berjudul Syarh Nahjul Bhalagahah.  Di dalam kitab tersebut, ia menuturkan bahwa salah satu sumber dari ilmu-ilmu Islam adalah Sayyidina Ali bin Abi Thalib, yang kemudian diajarkan kepada para pengikutnya.

Salah satunya adalah ilmu fikih. Di dalamnya, ia menjelaskan bahwa ilmu fikih yang dipelajari oleh para pendiri mazhab fikih di dalam Islam, seperti Imam Syafi’i, Imam Hanbail dan sebagainya—kalau dirunut, maka ilmu fikih yang ia pelajari tak lain bersumber dari pengetahuan Sayyidina Ali. Untuk membaca redaksinya, kita bisa membacanya sebagai berikut.

و من العلوم علم الفقه، و هو عليه السلام اصله و أساسه. و كل ففيه في الإسلام وهو عيال عليه، و مستفيد من فقهه. اما اصحاب ابي حنيفة كأبي يوسف و محمد و غيرهما فأخدوا عن ابي حنيفة. واما الشافعي فقرأ على محمد بن الحسن فيرجع فقهه أيضا الى أبي حنيفة. و أما احمد بن حنبل فقرأ على الشافعي فيرجع فقهه أيضا إلى أبي حنيفة و أبي حنيفة فقرأ على جعفر بن محمد عليه السلام، و قرأ جعفر على أبيه عليه السلام، وينتهي الأمر إلى عليّ عليه السلام.

“Dan di antara ilmu-ilmu itu adalah ilmu fikih. Dan dia (Ali As) adalah pangkal dan dasar dari ilmu fikih. Dan setiap ahli fikih di dalam Islam sepakat akan hal itu dan memanfaatkan ilmu tersebut. Adapun sahabat Abu Hanifah, seperti Abi Yusuf, Muhammad dan selainnya, mereka mengambil (belajar) dari Abu Hanifah. Adapun Syafi’i, ia belajar dari Muhammad bin Hasan, di mana ia juga merujuk fikih (yang bersumber dari Imam Ali) kepada Abu Hanifah. Adapun Ahmad bin Hanbal belajar dari Imam Syafi’i, di mana ia merujuk dari kepada Abu Hanifah. Dan Abu Hanifah belajar dari Imam Ja’far dan Imam Ja’far belajar dari ayahnya, lalu perkara itu berakhir (bersumber) dari  Ali as.”[1]

Kalau diperhatikan, Ibnu Abil Hadid hendak menjelaskan kepada kita, sesungguhnya fikih yang mereka pelajari bersumber dari Sayyidina Ali bin Abi Thalib yang merupakan imam pertama dari mazhab Syiah.


[1] Syarh Nahjul Balaghah, Ibnu Abil Hadid, jil. 1, hal. 18, penerbit: Darul Jail, Beirut-Lebanon.

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