Abu al-Aswad ad-Duali, Syiah Pengasas Ilmu Nahwu

Muslim Menjawab – Sumbangsih Syiah dalam bidang keilmuwan untuk dunia Islam dan selainnya tidak kentara jumlahnya, dan mayoritas dari mereka adalah para pengasas dalam bidang-bidang ilmu bukan hanya dalam keilmuan islam tetapi dalam ilmu sains pun ikut dalam memberikan sumbangan.

Berikut ini salah satu tabi’in yang makruf sebagai pengasas ilmu Nahwu , dan seorang syiah Ali bin Abi Tholib yakni Abu al-Aswad ad-Duwali, seperti yang kita ketahui bahwa ilmu nahwu adalah salah satu ilmu yang sangat penting dalam dunia Islam.

قال أحمد العجلي: ثقة، كان أول من تكلم في النحو.

وقال غيره: قاتل أبو الأسود يوم الجمل مع علي بن أبي طالب، وكان من وجوه الشيعة، ومن أكملهم عقلا ورأيا.

وقد أمره علي رضي الله عنه بوضع شئ في النحو لما سمع اللحن.

Ahmad al-‘Ijli berkata : Abu al-Aswad adalah seorang yang tsiqah, dan orang yang pertama kali berbicara dalam ilmu nahwu.

Dan berkata selainnya: Abu al-Aswad adalah bagian dari pasukan Ali bin abi Tholib di perang Jamal, dan dia adalah seorang tokoh syiah, dan yang memiliki kesempurnaan akal dan pandangan.

Ali bin Abi Tholib yang memerintahkannya untuk meletakkan dasar ilmu nahwu ketika dia mendengar orang-orang keliru dalam membaca. (Ad-Dzahabi, Siar A’lam an-Nubala: 4/82, Muassasah ar-Risalah – Beirut, cetakan kedua, 1402 H).

قال: سمعت ببلدكم لحنا فأردت أن أضع كتابا في أصول العربية.

فقلت: إن فعلت هذا، أحييتنا.

فأتيته بعد أيام، فألقى إلي صحيفة فيها.

الكلام كله اسم، وفعل، وحرف، فالاسم ما أنبأ عن المسمى، والفعل ما أنبأ عن حركة المسمى، والحرف ما أنبأ عن معنى ليس باسم ولا فعل، ثم قال لي: زده وتتبعه، فجمعت أشياء ثم عرضتها عليه.

Ali bin Abi Tholib berkata: aku mendengar di negerimu kekeliruan dalam pembacaan, maka aku ingin meletakkan dasar -dasar kaidah bahasa arab (nahwu), aku berkata : jikalau engkau melakukannya, maka engkau telah menghidupkan (pengetahuan) kami. Kemudian dia (Ali bin ABi Tholib) memberikan sahifah kepadaku yang didalamnya bertuliskan Al-Kalam seluruhnya adalah ismun , dan fi’lun dan harfun, adapun al-ismu adalah yang mengabarkan al-musamma, dan fi’il adalah yang mengabarkan gerakan al-musamma, dan al-harfu adalah yang mengabarkan makna yang bukan ism dan bukan pula fi’il, kemudian dia (Ali bin Abi Tholib berkata kepadaku): tambahkanlah dan perhatikanlah (ikutilah), maka aku kumpulkan beberapa dari kaidah-kaidah (nahwu yang ada) dan ku perlihatkan kepadanya. (Ad-Dzahabi, Siar A’lam an-Nubala: 4/84, Muassasah ar-Risalah – Beirut, cetakan kedua, 1402 H)

Selain dari seorang syiah, Abu al-Aswad ad-Duali orang yang memiliki makrifat dengan wilayah Ali bin Abi Tholib dan para imam dari putra-putranya

وكان أبو الأسود من المتحققين بولاية أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب ومحبته وصحبته ومحبة ولده

Abu al-Aswad adalah orang yang menyatakan (meyakini) wilayah Amirulmukminin Ali bin Abi Tholib, dan mencintainya, mengiringi bersamanya, serta mencintai putra-putranya. (Muhammad Abu al-Fadhl, Inbah ar-Ruwat: 1/82, Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi – Kairo, Muassasah al-kutub at-Tsaqofiah, cetakan pertama, 1406 H).

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