Imam Hanbali dan Rafidhah

MUSLIMMENJAWAB.COM – Seperti yang sudah kami bahas sebelumnya, bahwa Rafidah bukanlah istilah syar’i, melainkan istilah politik yang dipakai oleh penguasa pada zaman itu untuk menyudutkan kelompok Syiah. Atas kepentingan para penguasa kala itu, imbasnya, hingga kini, citra buruk Syiah masih didengungkan oleh sebagian kaum Muslim.

Terlepas dari persoalan di atas, menarik jika kita membuka kembali pernyataatn-pernyataan penting dari dari para ulama terdahulu tentang persoalan Rafidhah. Kali ini, penulis akan membuka pernyataan itu, yang termaktub di dalam kitab Al-Ilal wa Ma’rifatu ar-Rijal  karya Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal atau yang lebih masyhur dengan sebutan Imam Hanbali.

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Imam Hanbali menukil dari seorang ahli hadis, Syu’bah bin Al-Hujjah tentang persoalan Rafidhah. Adapun redaksi yang penulis maksud, bisa kita baca di bawah ini.

حدثني محمد بن عبد الله قال حدثنا أبو داود عن شعبه قال لقد حدثنا الحكم عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي ليلي عن علي بشيء لو حدثتكم لرقصتم والله لا تسمونه مني أبدا

“Telah mengabarkan kepadaku Muhammad bin Abdullah, dan ia berkata, ‘Telah mengabarkan kepada kami Abu Dawud dari Syu’bah dan ia berkata, ‘Telah mengabarkan kepada kami Al-Hikam dari Abdurrahman bin Abi Laili tentang Ali, bahwa ia berkata, ‘Seandainya aku ceritakan kepada kalian, maka kalian akan menari-nari. Demi Allah, engkau tidak akan mendengar hal itu dariku selamanya.’”

Di penggalan redaksi riwayat berikutnya, Imam Hanbali, masih menukil dari Syu’bah, bahwa ia menulis sebagai berikut.

وحدثنا به محمود بن غيلان مثله وقال لترفضتم

“Telah mengabarkan kepada kami Mahmud bin Ghilan, Syu’bah berkata, ‘Jika aku menceritakan itu (tentang Ali), maka kalian akan menjadi seorang Rafidhah.’”[1]

Terkait dengan Syu’bah bin Al-Hujaj, Syamsudin Adz-Dzahabi menceritakan bahawa Syu’bah memiliki (telah menukil) dua ribu hadis. Tsuri juga menceritakan, bahwa Syu’bah dikenal sebagai Amirul Mu’minin di dunia per-hadis-an. Menurut imam Syafi’i, jika saja Syu’bah tidak ada, maka orang Irak tidak akan mengenal hadis.

Dari redaksi di atas, kita mendapati sebuah perkara yang sengaja disembunyikan dan tidak disampaikan ke masyarakat kala itu. Dan di riwayat berikutnya  juga telah disebutkan, jika saja ada orang yang mendengar tentang Sayyidina Ali, maka ia akan menjadi seorang Rafidhah (Syiah). Di sini, kita bisa menarik kesimpulan bahwa ada yang tak rela bila ajaran (keutamaan) Sayyidina Ali, orang yang paling dekat dengan Nabi Saw. didengar oleh orang banyak. Wallahu a’lam bi-As-Shawab.


[1]Al-Ilal wa Ma’rifatu Ar-Rijal, jilid 3, hal. 354, Muhaqqiq (periset) Washiyullah bin Muhammad Abbas. Penerbit, Al-Maktab, Al-Islami Darul Khani, Beirut (Lebanon), Riyad (Saudi Arabia), cetakan pertama 1408 H/1988 M.

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